What is the skin barrier and how many layers are there?

The skin barrier, also known as the protective skin barrier, is the part of the human skin that helps protect the skin from the external environment, maintains moisture balance and prevents the invasion of pathogens. The skin barrier is made up of several layers of cells and tissues, mainly the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue.

  1. Stratum Corneum: The outermost layer of the skin barrier is the stratum corneum, which consists of keratinocytes (horny keratinocytes) that have died and whose main function is to form a protective barrier against water loss and the entry of harmful external substances. This is the outermost layer of the skin and is usually made up of dozens of layers of keratinocytes.
  2. Epidermis: Located just below the stratum corneum, the epidermis consists of a number of different cell layers, such as the basal layer, the echinocyte layer, the granular layer and the stratum corneum. The different cells in these layers play an important role in maintaining the structure and function of the skin.
  3. Dermis: The dermis is located beneath the epidermis and includes tissues such as collagen, elastic fibers, and blood vessels. The dermis serves as a support, nourishment and sensation, and also contains sebaceous and sweat glands, whose secretions help to maintain the skin’s moisturization and lubrication.
  4. Subcutaneous Tissue: The subcutaneous tissue is the innermost layer of the skin, which consists primarily of fat cells and connective tissue that provide insulation and cushioning for the body.

The skin barrier is important to protect the skin from external factors, including UV radiation, bacteria, pollutants, and water evaporation. It also helps maintain the skin’s moisture balance, preventing dryness and water loss. The health of the skin barrier is important for the overall health and appearance of the skin.

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